Conflict And Social Transformation In Eastern Dr Congo Pdf


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In the Democratic Republic of Congo DRC , the mining sector has the potential to play a pivotal role in post-conflict reconstruction World Bank, , and artisanal mining sustains the livelihoods of millions people in the country PACT, However, in the last 15 years, minerals from this artisanal mining have been ill-reputed. Eastern DRC has often been characterised by chronic instability and violent conflicts Autesserre, ; Stearns, because it is widely believed that minerals in this region have attracted the greed of national and foreign armed groups, who benefit from the mining business. In , 13 reform initiatives—10 focusing on 3T tantalum, tin and tungsten and three on gold—were operational in eastern DRC Cuvelier et al.

Global Conflict Tracker

Official websites use. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites. FE - Requirements and procedures for the restoration of Congolese nationality after it was lost; the possibility for persons born in the Democratic Republic of the Congo DRC who were raised outside of the country to reacquire Congolese nationality; whether the children of Congolese nationals can acquire Congolese nationality - Apr. FE - Democratic Republic of the Congo: The biometric passport, including its appearance and security features; requirements and procedure for obtaining a biometric passport from inside and outside the country - July PDF COD FE - Democratic Republic of Congo: The coalition of opposition political parties, including political parties that are members of the coalition; the treatment of coalition members by the authorities - July PDF COD FE - Democratic Republic of the Congo: Prevalence and availability of fraudulent identity, administrative and legal documents February - Apr.

FE - Whether a foreign national who acquired Congolese citizenship through marriage can regain Congolese nationality; if so, the procedure for regaining Congolese nationality; whether a child born outside the Democratic Republic of the Congo DRC of a Congolese father can acquire Congolese nationality from outside the country; if so, the procedure for doing so - Apr.

FE - Democratic Republic of the Congo: Whether a birth, marriage or death certificate can be obtained by a person residing outside the country; the procedure to follow and the fees required - Nov. FE - Democratic Republic of the Congo: The national driver's licence, including its appearance, security features, additional functions for which the licence is used, and the year it was introduced - Jul.

FE - Democratic Republic of Congo: The Congolese passport, including the name of the issuing authority and the procedure and conditions for obtaining one; possibilities of obtaining a passport through fraud or corruption March - Mar. FE - Democratic Republic of Congo: Incidence and accessibility of fraudulent identity, administrative and legal documents - Feb. FE - Whether authorization is required to exit the country; if so, the date this measure came into effect, the persons who require such authorization and the methods for obtaining it January - Jan.

FE - The notices to appear issued by the National Intelligence Agency Agence nationale de renseignements, ANR in Kinshasa, including the information indicated on them, the identity office and rank of the issuing authority, the circumstances in which they are issued, and the time between the date they are issued and the date they are received; whether they are delivered directly to the person concerned or whether they can be issued through a third party - June PDF ZZZ E - Democratic Republic of the Congo: Consequences for a child, aged 19, who has disobeyed the wishes of his father; ill-treatment or prejudice that may arise from disobeying one's parent given the social and cultural context - Nov.

FE - Whether voter's cards have continued to be issued since the elections or whether they were only issued during the elections period; the documents required to obtain the card and the authorities that issue it - - Nov. FE - The constitutional referendum from 18 to 19 December , particularly the conditions of the referendum, its results, and the reactions of independent observers and opponents February - Feb.

FE - Traditional practices of tshibindi and tshibawu in Kasai, including the purpose of these practices and consequences of refusing to follow them - Apr. E - Marriage practices among the Luba, including frequency of forced marriage for adult women, as well as the possibility for a person to marry someone of a different ethnicity or from a different region; recourse available to Luba women in cases of forced marriage, including levirate marriage April - May PDF COD Please include any tribal background and history, any involvement of the Banyamulenge tribe in conflicts particularly post , any physical and linguistic attributes of members of the tribe, and any discrimination in the Democratic Republic of the Congo against members of the Banyamulenge tribe Banyamulenge Tribe - Zimba Tribe - Communal Violence - Please provide any details of the Bazimba or Zimba tribe including physical and linguistic attributes of members of the tribe and details of any traditional and current tribal lands.

FE - Democratic Republic of Congo: Treatment of Congolese Tutsis Banyamulenge from the East in the western and southern parts of the country, mainly in Kinshasa and Lubumbashi; whether Banyamulenge are specifically singled out by the general population and by government authorities because of their ties to the rebel movements for whom they are believed to be spies December - Dec.

FE - Democratic Republic of Congo: The situation of members of the Wabembe ethnic group in South Kivu, including the existence of a group called Emo Imbondo, whose objective is to remove the government, the Banyarwanda Rwandans and the rebels, so that peace may be restored to the region; whether two demonstrations were held in Baraka on 6 and 13 May , respectively, and, if so, whether any of the demonstrators were arrested or killed - Oct.

E - Democratic Republic of the Congo: Marriage practices among the Luba, including frequency of forced marriage for adult women, as well as the possibility for a person to marry someone of a different ethnicity or from a different region; recourse available to Luba women in cases of forced marriage, including levirate marriage April - May PDF COD E - Democratic Republic of the Congo: Forced marriages, including prevalence, types, and availability of state protection and recourse for victims March - Apr.

E - Democratic Republic of the Congo: Domestic and sexual violence, including legislation, state protection, and services available to victims March - Apr. E - Democratic Republic of the Congo: Prevalence of domestic violence, the availability of legal protection, methods of punishing or deterring offenders, and presence of support systems for survivors March - Mar. FE - Democratic Republic of Congo DRC : Whether forced marriages exist; if so, the frequency of such marriages, the people who organize them maternal or paternal family , the regions and ethnic groups involved, the treatment of people who refuse such marriages and the state protection available to them - January - Jan.

FE - Democratic Republic of Congo: Government's attitude toward single mothers who have several children and who are returning to the Democratic Republic of Congo after a lengthy absence; risks of being exposed to poor socio-economic conditions, and the availability of public services October - Nov. Likelihood of harm to women who return to DRC - Sept.

FE - Democratic Republic of the Congo: Requirements and procedures for filing a criminal complaint, including documents received by the complainant; whether the complaint file is accessible to the complainant, including the procedure to obtain a copy of the file in the country and from abroad; whether the DRC has a standard complaint form - July PDF COD FE - Democratic Republic of Congo: The state security forces, including their name, mandate and organization; whether members of these forces are involved in human rights violations - March - Mar.

Justice System. Medical Availability. Information on health care - Jan. Political Figures and Parties. COD - Nov. Also provide any relevant information on the treatment of members and subsequently. FE - Democratic Republic of the Congo: Information on the Union for Democracy and Social Progress including the number of members, locations of its offices, its situation in relation to other political parties, and the treatment of its members and leaders by government authorities; whether there are factions within the UDPS - Apr.

FE - The role and responsibilities of an assistant secretary to the minister in public administration; whether it is a high-ranking position; if so, its equivalent in the Canadian public service - - Sept. FE - Democratic Republic of Congo: The existence of a political party called the Union for National Recovery Union pour le redressement national, URN , which was allegedly founded in the Republic of Congo Congo-Brazzaville in ; the party's mission and objectives, founding members, leaders and operations October - Oct.

FE - Democratic Republic of Congo: The Debout Bukavu group, reportedly founded in Bukavu in , and specifically its objectives, structure, the names of its founders, its possible ties to the Congolese Rally for Democracy RCD and the treatment of its followers by government authorities and Congolese society in general June - Jun. Situation of individuals who have or are perceived to have political affiliations in Kinshasa.

Situation of individuals who provide services to politicians or public figures. Information about whether they continue to be "persecuted" or whether this has completely ceased in recent years - Mar. FE - Democratic Republic of the Congo: Information on the Bundu dia Kongo BDK movement, including its political program, location of its offices, the number of its members, its situation with respect to other political parties, and the attitude of government authorities toward its leaders and member - April - Apr.

Sexual Orientation. FE - Democratic Republic of Congo: Situation of sexual minorities, including legislation and treatment by society and the authorities; state protection and support services Feb. FE - Situation of homosexuals, including legislation and support services; treatment of homosexuals by society and government authorities February - Mar.

FE - Democratic Republic of Congo: The treatment of gays and lesbians and the state protection available against their discrimination and their being targeted April - - Dec. Specific Country Issues - Armed Conflict. E - Democratic Republic of the Congo: The armed group M23 Mouvement du 23 mars , including information on its activities and the situation of its members and leaders; forced recruitment by the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo FARDC and the government in the eastern region of the country February January - Feb.

FE - The armed group M23 Mouvement du 23 Mars , including its activities in Goma; the ethnic makeup of the group, its objectives, affiliated groups, recruitment methods and areas of operation; treatment of its members by state security forces January - Jan. When was it founded? Any information on leadership, number of fighters, recent activities? FE - Democratic Republic of Congo: The practice of female genital mutilation FGM , particularly whether a woman can be forced to undergo FGM against her and her parents' will; the consequences of refusing to undergo FGM; the possibility of filing a complaint; the availability of state protection June - Jul.

Specific Country Issues - Child Soldiers. Forced conscription into the DRC army. Forced conscription of minors into the DRC army. Specific Country Issues - Treatment of Returnees. FE - Democratic Republic of Congo: Treatment by government authorities of people sent back to the Democratic Republic of Congo after their application for asylum abroad has been rejected August - Aug.

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Stadium Coltan: artisanal mining, reforms and social change in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo

This article discusses the social mobility of combatants and introduces the notion of circular return to explain their pendular state of movement between civilian and combatant life. This phenomenon is widely observed in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo DRC , where Congolese youth have been going in and out of armed groups for several decades now. While the notion of circular return has its origins in migration and refugee studies, we show that it also serves as a useful lens to understand the navigation capacity between different social spaces of combatants and to describe and understand processes of incessant armed mobilization and demobilization. In conceptualizing these processes as forms of circular return, we want to move beyond the remobilization discourse, which is too often connected to an assumed failure of disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration processes. Armed groups and armed mobilization have gained increased attention in the study of civil war. Debates on the proliferation, incentives, strategies and discourses of armed groups have inspired different subfields of study including the political economy of war, governance and political order-making in conflict-affected areas, and rebel governance Schlichte a , b ; Adam et al. Existing literature tends to analyse this cycle mostly from a security perspective.

Download full report English Spanish. It adopted a holistic and multi-sectoral approach to conflict prevention and peacebuilding based on conflict analysis. The focus was on community-based reintegration of returnees ex-combatants and displaced persons and survivors of sexual violence, improvement of absorption capacity and livelihoods, and community-based prevention initiatives. Special attention was paid to the needs, participation and empowerment of vulnerable women, including survivors of sexual violence, widows, women heads of households and poor women. Human Development Indicators are among the lowest in the world.


PDF | On Jan 1, , Koen Vlassenroot and others published Conflict and Social Transformation in Eastern DR Congo | Find, read and cite all.


Dynamics of conflict during the Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo 2018–2019

Metrics details. The outbreak emerged in a region of chronic conflict and insecurity, and directed attacks against health care workers may have interfered with disease response activities. Our study characterizes and quantifies the broader conflict dynamics over the course of the outbreak by pairing epidemiological and all available spatial conflict data. We build a set of conflict variables by mapping the spatial locations of all conflict events and their associated deaths in each of the affected health zones in North Kivu and Ituri, eastern DRC, before and during the outbreak.

However, election results have since been questioned. The Congolese government was unable to control and defeat the various armed groups, some of which directly threatened populations in neighboring countries, and war eventually broke out.

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As legislation requiring large U. For many years, it has proved impossible to find a solution to the problem of the illegal exploitation of minerals in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo DRC by actors in the conflict. This report ruled out an embargo or moratorium on raw materials exports from the DRC, but insisted on the need to impose sanctions assets freeze and travel ban to stop the illegal exploitation and trading of natural resources. In addition to these measures, the report also insisted on accompanying institutional measures, particularly reform of the army and international regulation of trade in minerals. Adoption of the Dodd-Frank Act by the U,S, Congress in resulted in an upsurge of international initiatives to make trade in conflict minerals in the Great Lakes zone transparent and prevent it from financing the warmongers behind the troubles in eastern DRC. These new regulatory initiatives have provoked lively reactions locally, embarrassed governments in the region and divided experts. But to what extent do they have the potential to change things?

African Affairs, Vol. Local Violence and the Failure of International Peacebuilding. CUP, Cambridge. Mission difficult! Institute for Security Studies, Pretoria.

The system can't perform the operation now. Try again later. Citations per year. Duplicate citations. The following articles are merged in Scholar. Their combined citations are counted only for the first article.

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Democratic Republic of the Congo

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