Diarrhea And Dehydration In Toddlers PdfBy Valentino A. In and pdf 26.11.2020 at 18:24 9 min read
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Diarrhea causes frequent, loose bowel movements.
Diagnosis and Management of Dehydration in Children
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Dehydration in Children
Dehydration occurs when the body does not have enough water to function properly. Learn how illness can cause dehydration and how it is treated. Every day, we lose body fluids water and other liquids in our urine, stool, sweat and tears. We replace the lost fluids by eating and drinking. Normally, the body balances these processes carefully, so we replace as much water as we lose.
The body needs water to help maintain body temperature, make bodily fluids and for day-to-day functioning. Young children and babies are at greater risk of becoming dehydrated than adults. Keeping your child hydrated is important at all times, but especially when they are unwell. If your child is very thirsty, they are probably already dehydrated. The effects of severe dehydration can be serious.
There are many reasons why children can get dried out or dehydrated. A child can lose too much liquid from the body from diarrhea, vomiting or fever. If the child has mouth sores or a bellyache, they may refuse to drink enough. Babies and younger children are at greater risk. Getting dehydrated can be dangerous for infants and young children.
The most useful individual signs for identifying dehydration in children are prolonged capillary refill time, abnormal skin turgor, and abnormal respiratory pattern. However, clinical dehydration scales based on a combination of physical examination findings are better predictors than individual signs. Oral rehydration therapy is the preferred treatment of mild to moderate dehydration caused by diarrhea in children. Appropriate oral rehydration therapy is as effective as intravenous fluid in managing fluid and electrolyte losses and has many advantages. Goals of oral rehydration therapy are restoration of circulating blood volume, restoration of interstitial fluid volume, and maintenance of rehydration. When rehydration is achieved, a normal age-appropriate diet should be initiated. Clinical dehydration scales based on a combination of physical examination findings are the most specific and sensitive tools for accurately diagnosing dehydration in children and categorizing its severity.
Dehydration is significant depletion of body water and, to varying degrees, electrolytes. Symptoms and signs include thirst, lethargy, dry mucosa, decreased urine output, and, as the degree of dehydration progresses, tachycardia, hypotension, and shock. Diagnosis is based on history and physical examination. Treatment is with oral or IV replacement of fluid and electrolytes. Dehydration remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants and young children worldwide.
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Most children with gastroenteritis do not develop dehydration and can be treated at home. Children with mild to moderate dehydration should be treated with low osmolarity oral rehydration solutions, and those with severe dehydration or shock need to be admitted for administration of intravenous fluids.