Figures Of Speech Meaning And Examples Pdf


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Language can be used in two ways. These are the literal and figurative use of the word. However, when figuratively spoken, the meaning of any word or phrase will depend on the context in which it is used.

We use figures of speech in "figurative language" to add colour and interest, and to awaken the imagination. Figurative language is everywhere, from classical works like Shakespeare or the Bible, to everyday speech, pop music and television commercials. It makes the reader or listener use their imagination and understand much more than the plain words.

Figure of Speech Examples

A figure of speech is a literary device in which language is used in an unusual—or "figured"—way in order to produce a stylistic effect. Figures of speech can be broken into two main groups: figures of speech that play with the ordinary meaning of words such as metaphor , simile , and hyperbole , and figures of speech that play with the ordinary arrangement or pattern in which words are written such as alliteration , ellipsis , and antithesis.

There's a lot of confusion about the difference between the terms "figures of speech" and " figurative language.

The two most common and most acceptable definitions of figurative language are:. You might encounter people using figurative speech to mean either of the above, and it's not really possible to say which is correct.

But if you know about these two different ways of relating figurative language and figures of speech, you'll be in pretty good shape. The oldest and still most common way to organize figures of speech is to split them into two main groups: tropes and schemes. But it is the most common method, and is both simple and structured enough to help you understand figures of speech. Generally, a trope uses comparison, association, or wordplay to play with the literal meaning of words or to layer another meaning on top of a word's literal meaning.

Some of the most commonly used tropes are explained briefly below, though you can get even more detail on each from its specific LitCharts entry. Schemes are mechanical—they're figures of speech that tinker with words, sounds, and structures as opposed to meanings in order to achieve an effect. Schemes can themselves be broken down in helpful ways that define the sort of tinkering they employ.

Some of the most commonly used schemes are explained briefly below, though you can get even more detail on each from its specific LitCharts entry. Figures of speech can make language more inventive, more beautiful, more rhythmic, more memorable, and more meaningful. It shouldn't be a surprise, then, that figures of speech are plentiful in all sorts of written language.

The examples below show a variety of different types of figures of speech. You can see many more examples of each type at their own specific LitChart entries. Literature is riddled with figures of speech because figures of speech make language colorful and complex.

On and on, now east now west, wound the poor thread that once had been our drive. Sometimes I thought it lost, but it appeared again, beneath a fallen tree perhaps, or struggling on the other side of a muddied ditch created by the winter rains.

In this quote from Rebecca , Daphne du Maurier refers to a washed-out road as "the poor thread. It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair, we had everything before us, we had nothing before us, we were all going direct to Heaven, we were all going direct the other way.

In the famous opening line of A Tale of Two Cities , Dickens uses parallelism —a scheme in which parts of a sentence repeat—in order to emphasize the contradictions of the time in which the book is set. Dickens has manipulated his sentence structure so that the parallel clauses emphasize the oppositional nature of his words "it was the best of times, it was the worst of times".

The figure of speech doesn't play with the meaning of words, it emphasizes them through structure and repetition, which is why it is a scheme. In this manner, s electing it as the s ymbol of his wife's liability to s in, s orrow, d ecay, and d eath, Aylmer's s ombre imagination was not long in rendering the birthmark a frightful object, causing him more trouble and horror than ever Georgiana's beauty, whether of s oul or s ense, had given him delight.

This passage from " The Birthmark " uses alliteration to tie together all of the things that Georgiana's birthmark is supposed to symbolize. By using words that alliterate—"sin and sorrow" and "decay and death," for example—Hawthorne is making the reader feel that these ideas are connected, rather than simply stating that they are connected. Alliteration is a figure of speech—a scheme—because it uses the mechanics of language to emphasize meaning.

Antony needs to hold Brutus and his conspirators accountable for Caesar's death without contradicting the crowd's positive impression of Brutus, so Antony uses verbal irony to simultaneously please and trouble the crowd.

On the surface, Antony says what the audience wants to hear that Brutus is honorable , but it becomes clear over the course of his speech that he means the opposite of what he says and over time he convinces the audience to believe this opposite meaning as well. This is a figure of speech a trope because it's based on a play on the meaning of Antony's words.

Figures of speech are also common in music. Schemes fit naturally with songs because both schemes and songs manipulate sound and rhythm to enhance the meanings of words. Music also uses many tropes, because using words that have meanings beyond their literal ones makes language more interesting, and it allows songwriters to create music that uses just a few words to imply a complex meaning. So sh ine br igh t ton igh t, you and I We're beautiful l i ke d i amonds in the sk y Eye to eye , so al i ve We're beautiful l i ke d i amonds in the sk y.

Rihanna uses assonance when she repeats the " eye " sound throughout the chorus of "Diamonds. Assonance is a scheme because it's using the sound of words—not their meaning—to draw a parallel between different things. Rihanna also uses the phrase "Diamonds in the sky" as a metaphor for stars.

This is a trope—a phrase that means something other than what it literally says—as Rihanna obviously doesn't think that there are actually diamonds in the sky.

This verse is a good example of how figures of speech can often work together and overlap. In this case, the metaphor that allows her to use "diamonds" instead of "stars" also fits into her use of assonance because "stars" lacks the "eye" sound. Another turning point, a fork stuck in the road Time grabs you by the wrist, directs you where to go.

While the first line of this song uses "a fork stuck in the road" as a metaphor for a choice, the more arresting figure of speech at work here is the personification of time in the second line. By giving "time" human characteristics—the ability to grab a person and tell them where to go—Green Day is helping listeners to make sense of the power that time has over people.

This is a trope because the line doesn't mean what it literally says; instead, it's asking listeners to make a comparison between the characteristics of time and the characteristics of a person. In the line "Straight up racist that sucker was," Public Enemy uses anastrophe which is the inversion of typical word order to preserve the rhythm of the verse.

Since anastrophe manipulates the order of words in order to achieve a rhythmic effect, it's a scheme. Figures of speech is a category that encompasses a broad variety of literary terms, so it's difficult to give one answer to this question.

Writers use different figures of speech to achieve different effects. Schemes figures of speech that manipulate sound, syntax, and word order can make language more beautiful, persuasive, or memorable. Writers can use schemes to draw attention to an important passage, to create a sound that mirrors or contrasts with the meaning of words, or to give language a rhythm that draws the reader in.

As schemes tend to work through sound and rhythm, they generally produce a visceral effect, or an effect felt in the body—broadly speaking, schemes are more sensory than intellectual. In contrast, writers use tropes to grab the reader intellectually by adding complexity or ambiguity to an otherwise simple word or phrase. Tropes can ask the reader to make a comparison between two unlike things, they can impose human qualities on nonhumans, and they can mean the opposite of what they say.

Tropes engage the intellect because the reader has to be alert to the fact that tropes do not use language at face value—a trope never means what it literally says. All figures of speech help a writer to communicate ideas that are difficult to say in words or that are more effectively communicated non-verbally. This could be by repeating harsh consonants to create a scary atmosphere, or by using a metaphor to impose the qualities of something concrete say, a rose onto something more difficult to define say, love.

In general, figures of speech attempt to bring out a reader's emotion and to capture their attention by making language more colorful, surprising, and complex.

Teachers and parents! Struggling with distance learning? Our Teacher Editions can help. Figure of Speech. Figure of Speech Definition. Figure of Speech Examples. Figure of Speech Function. Figure of Speech Resources. LitCharts Teacher Editions. Teach your students to analyze literature like LitCharts does. Detailed explanations, analysis, and citation info for every important quote on LitCharts. The original text plus a side-by-side modern translation of every Shakespeare play.

Sign Up. Already have an account? Sign in. From the creators of SparkNotes, something better. Sign In Sign Up. Literature Poetry Lit Terms Shakescleare. Download this entire guide PDF. Figure of Speech Definition What is a figure of speech? Some additional key details about figures of speech: The ancient Greeks and Romans exhaustively listed, defined, and categorized figures of speech in order to better understand how to effectively use language.

The names of most figures of speech derive from the original Greek or Latin. Figures of speech that play with the literal meaning of words are called tropes , while figures of speech that play with the order or pattern of words are called schemes. Figures of speech can take many forms.

A figure of speech can involve a single word, a phrase, an omission of a word or phrase, a repetition of words or sounds, or specific sentence structures.

Figure of Speech Pronunciation Here's how to pronounce figure of speech: fig -yer of speech Figures of Speech vs. Figurative Language There's a lot of confusion about the difference between the terms "figures of speech" and " figurative language. The two most common and most acceptable definitions of figurative language are: Figurative language refers to any language that contains figures of speech.

According to this definition, figurative language and figures of speech are not quite the same thing, but it's pretty darn close. The only difference is that figures of speech refer to each specific type of a figure of speech, while figurative language refers more generally to any language that contains any kind of figures of speech. Figurative language refers to words or expressions that have non-literal meanings : This definition associates figurative language only with the category of figures of speech called tropes which are figures of speech that play with the literal meaning of words.

So according to this definition, figurative language would be any language that contains tropes, but not language that contains the figures of speech called schemes. Figures of Speech, Tropes, and Schemes The oldest and still most common way to organize figures of speech is to split them into two main groups: tropes and schemes. Tropes are figures of speech that involve a deviation from the expected and literal meaning of words.

Schemes are figures of speech that involve a deviation from the typical mechanics of a sentence, such as the order, pattern, or arrangement of words. Tropes Generally, a trope uses comparison, association, or wordplay to play with the literal meaning of words or to layer another meaning on top of a word's literal meaning. Metaphor : A metaphor is a figure of speech that makes a comparison between two unrelated things by stating that one thing is another thing, even though this isn't literally true.

For example, if someone says "it's raining cats and dogs," this obviously doesn't literally mean what it says—it's a metaphor that makes a comparison between the weight of "cats and dogs" and heavy rain.

Metaphors are tropes because their effect relies not on the mechanics of the sentence, but rather on the association created by the use of the phrase "cats and dogs" in a non-literal manner. Simile : A simile, like a metaphor, makes a comparison between two unrelated things.

100 figures of speech with examples

This consists of expressing some fact or idea in a roundabout way, instead of stating it at once. How can we move students from literal interpretations in Level 1 to figurative expressions in Level 2? It is a direct address to some inanimate thing or some abstract idea as if it were living person or some absent person as if it were present. It is a figure of speech which combines two seemingly contradictory or incongruous words for sharp emphasis or effect. We can also define it as a figure of speech extending etymologically from Ancient Greece.

A figure of speech is a word or phrase using figurative language—language that has other meaning than its normal definition. In other words, figures of speeches rely on implied or suggested meaning, rather than a dictionary definition. We express and develop them through hundreds of different rhetorical techniques, from specific types like metaphors and similes , to more general forms like sarcasm and slang. Figures of speech make up a huge portion of the English language, making it more creative, more expressive, and just more interesting! Many have been around for hundreds of years—some even thousands—and more are added to our language essentially every day. This article will focus on a few key forms of figures of speech, but remember, the types are nearly endless! There are countless figures of speech in every language, and they fall into hundreds of categories.


A concise definition of Figure of Speech along with usage tips, an expanded Download this entire guide (PDF) Figures of Speech Examples in Literature.


Figures of speech (full list)

A figure of speech is a word or phrase that possesses a separate meaning from its literal definition. It can be a metaphor or simile , designed to make a comparison. It can be the repetition of alliteration or the exaggeration of hyperbole to provide a dramatic effect. In truth, there are a wealth of these literary tools in the English language. But, let's start out by exploring some of the most common figure of speech examples.

A figure of speech is a word or phrase that is used in a non-literal way to create an effect. This effect may be rhetorical as in the deliberate arrangement of words to achieve something poetic, or imagery as in the use of language to suggest a visual picture or make an idea more vivid. Overall, figures of speech function as literary devices because of their expressive use of language.

How we change what others think, feel, believe and do. Figures of speech or 'rhetorical tropes' are ways of using words that may seem unusual but have a specific and desired effect. Read as 'normal words' they often break normal rules of grammar, but can be nevertheless understood They are common in poetry and eloquent speech.

A figure of speech is a literary device in which language is used in an unusual—or "figured"—way in order to produce a stylistic effect. Figures of speech can be broken into two main groups: figures of speech that play with the ordinary meaning of words such as metaphor , simile , and hyperbole , and figures of speech that play with the ordinary arrangement or pattern in which words are written such as alliteration , ellipsis , and antithesis. There's a lot of confusion about the difference between the terms "figures of speech" and " figurative language.

В шифровалке все в порядке! - Телефон не унимался. Джабба принялся устанавливать на место новый чип. Через минуту его усилия увенчались успехом, а телефон все звонил и звонил. Христа ради, Мидж. Ну хватит .

 Забудьте про пленку, - сказал Бринкерхофф.  - Вводите ключ и кончайте со всем. Джабба вздохнул.

 - Я ничего не знаю. Беккер зашагал по комнате. - На руке умершего было золотое кольцо. Я хочу его забрать.

Figure of Speech Examples

 Вы оба настолько заврались, что в это даже трудно поверить.  - Хейл сильнее сжал горло Сьюзан.  - Если лифт обесточен, я отключу ТРАНСТЕКСТ и восстановлю подачу тока в лифт. - У дверцы лифта есть код, - злорадно сказала Сьюзан. - Ну и проблема! - засмеялся Хейл.

Час спустя, когда Беккер уже окончательно опоздал на свой матч, а Сьюзан откровенно проигнорировала трехстраничное послание на интеркоме, оба вдруг расхохотались. И вот эти два интеллектуала, казалось бы, неспособные на вспышки иррациональной влюбленности, обсуждая проблемы лингвистической морфологии и числовые генераторы, внезапно почувствовали себя подростками, и все вокруг окрасилось в радужные тона. Сьюзан ни слова не сказала об истинной причине своей беседы с Дэвидом Беккером - о том, что она собиралась предложить ему место в Отделе азиатской криптографии.

 - Стратмор кивнул в сторону лаборатории систем безопасности.  - Чатрукьян уже, надеюсь, ушел. - Не знаю, я его не видела. - Господи Иисусе, - простонал Стратмор.

Figure of Speech | 20 Important Figures of Speech with Definition and Examples

 Но, Мидж… - сказал Бринкерхофф.

 - Не в этом дело… - Да в этом.  - Он все еще посмеивался.  - Дэвид Беккер хороший малый.

Мысль Сьюзан показалась ему достойной внимания. - Неплохо, но есть одно. Он не пользовался своими обычными почтовыми ящиками - ни домашним, ни служебными. Он бывал в Университете Досися и использовал их главный компьютер. Очевидно, там у него был адрес, который он сумел утаить.

 Никто не слышал. Это было сделано тайно. - Мидж, - сказал Бринкерхофф, - Джабба просто помешан на безопасности ТРАНСТЕКСТА. Он ни за что не установил бы переключатель, позволяющий действовать в обход… - Стратмор заставил.  - Она не дала ему договорить.

Figure of Speech

Для урана используется ружейный детонатор, для плутония нужен взрыв.

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