A Compendium Of Neuropsychological Tests Administration Norms And Commentary Pdf


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These tests are typically standardized, meaning that they have been administered to a specific group or groups of individuals before being used in individual clinical cases.

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A Compendium of Neuropsychological Tests: Administration, Norms, and Commentary

This content was uploaded by our users and we assume good faith they have the permission to share this book. If you own the copyright to this book and it is wrongfully on our website, we offer a simple DMCA procedure to remove your content from our site. Start by pressing the button below! Psychometrics in Neuropsychological Assessment, 1 2. Norms Selection in Neuropsychological Assessment, 44 3.

History Taking, 55 4. Report Writing and Feedback Sessions, 86 6. In addition to commercial measures, numerous tests developed primarily for research purposes have found their way into wide clinical usage; these vary considerably with regard to psychometric properties.

With few exceptions, when tests originate from clinical research contexts, there is often validity data but little else, which makes estimating measurement precision and stability of test scores a challenge.

Texts such as those by Nunnally and Bernstein and Anastasi and Urbina outline some of the fundamental psychometric prerequisites for competent selection of tests and interpretation of obtained scores.

Other, neuropsychologically focused texts such as Mitrushina et al. The following is intended to provide a broad overview of important psychometric concepts in neuropsychological assessment and coverage of important issues to consider when critically evaluating tests for clinical usage.

Much of the information provided also serves as a conceptual framework for the test reviews in this volume. The frequency distributions of many physical, biological, and psychological attributes, as they occur across individuals in nature, tend to conform, to a greater or lesser degree, to a bellshaped curve see Figure 1—1.

The normal curve is the basis of many commonly used statistical and psychometric models e. It is unimodal, perfectly symmetrical and asymptotic at the tails. With respect to scores from measures that are normally distributed, the ordinate, or height of the curve at any point along the x test score axis, is the proportion of persons within the sample who obtained a given score. The ordinates for a range of scores i. Thus, the normal curve may also be referred to as a probability distribution.

Z score conversions to percentiles are also shown in Table 1—1. Z Scores and Percentiles A percentile indicates the percentage of scores that fall at or below a given test score. As an example, we will assume that a given test score is plotted on a normal curve. When all of the ordinate values at and below this test score are summed, the resulting value is the percentile associated with that test score e.

The percentile An important property of the normal curve is that the relationship between raw or z scores which for purposes of this discussion are equivalent, since they are linear transformations of each other and percentiles is not linear.

That is, a constant difference between raw or z scores will be associated with a variable difference in percentile scores, as a function of the distance of the two scores from the mean. This is due to the fact that there are proportionally more observations scores near the mean than there are farther from the mean; otherwise, the distribution would be rectangular, or non-normal.

This can readily be seen in Figure 1—2, which shows the normal distribution with demarcation of z scores and corresponding percentile ranges. The nonlinear relation between z scores and percentiles has important interpretive implications.

For example, a onepoint difference between two z scores may be interpreted differently, depending on where the two scores fall on the normal curve. For example, a 30point difference between scores at the 1st percentile versus the 31st percentile may be more clinically meaningful than the same difference between scores at the 35th percentile versus the 65th percentile.

Linear Transformation of Z Scores: T Scores and Other Standard Scores In addition to the z score, linear transformation can be used to produce other standardized scores that have the same properties with regard to easy conversion via table look-up see Table 1—1.

It must be remembered that z scores, T scores, standard scores, and percentile equivalents are derived from samples ; although these are often treated as population values, any limitations of generalizability due to reference sample composition or testing circumstances must be taken into consideration when standardized scores are interpreted.

It is also good practice to keep a continuous record of the order in which the tests were administered as well as the time used for each test and rest period. Computer Administration This is becoming popular, in part because of the advantages offered to the neuropsychologist in terms of presentation format. The computer provides precisely the same test each time; responses are automatically recorded and analyzed, also reducing error. Another advantage is the ease with which different indices of performance can be obtained e.

A number of tests have been specially developed for computer administration e. However, close supervision is needed for computer-administered tests to ensure that the patient is able to follow instructions properly to provide valid results. Computer-administered tests do not necessarily provide identical or even similar results as the same test administered by an examiner in person Feldstein et al.

Hence, the existing normative data may not be applicable. For example, a study by Feldstein et al. None of the computerized versions was found to be equivalent to the manual version on all assessment measures, suggesting that norms provided for the standard version could not be used for the computer versions. Rather, new norms needed to be established for each computer version. The authors concluded that some tests were not amenable to 78 A Compendium of Neuropsychological Tests automation.

For example, some individuals e. In short, using a computer for administration of standard tests requires demonstrating that meaningful and equivalent results can be obtained with computer testing. Moreover, there is some evidence that as computer-related anxiety increases, performance on computer administered measures tends to decrease Browndyke et al.

Order of Administration In general, test order has little impact on performance. When tests e. There are a number of issues to consider with regard to ordering the tests. Thus, test administration does require careful planning to avoid interference effects. For example, various memory tests call for the recall of stimuli after a period of 10 to 30 minutes. There are other considerations as well. For example, some measures e. Others e. Certain measures of motivational status are best placed at the very beginning of a neuropsychological examination.

Some of these tasks e. Such situations include the following Johnson-Greene, : a testing is mandated by law or governmental regulations, b informed consent is implied because testing is conducted as a routine educational, institutional, or organizational activity, or c where the purpose of testing is to evaluate decisional capacity.

In such cases, as well as with children, patients should be provided with basic information about the procedures, their preferences should be noted, and their assent should be documented along with the consent of a legally authorized person.

Forensic cases are viewed similarly in that a normal doctor-patient relationship does not exist but the basic components of patient assent would be expected Johnson-Greene, Persons undergoing forensic evaluations may also be precluded from receiving an explanation of their test results normally afforded to patients, which should be explained in advance of any forensic evaluation Johnson-Greene, The National Academy of Neuropsychology strongly encourages neuropsychologists to provide informed consent to patients seeking services and views its conveyance as a basic professional and ethical responsibility.

A sample informed consent document Johnson-Greene, is provided in Figure 4—2. Additional Considerations Relatively little attention has been paid to the consumer side of neuropsychological assessments see also Prigatano, These rules would seem to apply equally to other geographic locations adapted from Bennett-Levy et al.

Patients are usually not prepared for what to expect during an assessment. Sixty percent of the patients in the study had no information on what to expect or were unaware that the assessment Test Selection, Test Administration, and Preparation of the Patient 79 Figure 4—1 Flowchart for informed consent. Source: Johnson-Greene, Reprinted with permission from Elsevier.

Special Referral Situations a. Mandated by law or governmental regulations b. Routine educational, institutional, or organizational activity where consent is implied c. This can be remedied by educating referring agents, sending an informative letter before the assessment e.

Feedback on strengths and problem areas with suggestions about how to get around problem areas is recommended. Consider Assessment Characteristics Source of referral Referral question s and goal of the assessment Anticipated uses of assessment Inpatient or outpatient setting? Involvement of third parties? Special legal mandates or circumstances? Special limits of confidentiality? Use of interpreter? Recording of voice or images? Referral source 2.

Purpose of the assessment 3. Forseeable risks, discomforts, and benefits 4. Fees and testing time 5. Limits of confidentiality 6. Involvement of third parties Provide opportunity for patient to ask questions and receive answers Ask probing questions to assess understanding Document written or oral consent varies depending on situation anxiety, but may also help in history taking and in the informing interview.

In most cases, the accompanying person should be interviewed separately to avoid embarrassment to both patient and interviewee. However, the presence of third-party observers in the test situation or behind one-way mirrors or via electronic recording is generally discouraged since it creates the potential for distraction and may increase the risk that motivational disturbances may impact Figure 4—2 Sample informed consent.

Source: Johnson—Greene Referral Source: You have been referred for a neuropsychological assessment i. Nature and Purpose of Assessment: The goal of neuropsychological assessment is to determine if any changes have occurred in your attention, memory, language, problem solving, or other cognitive functions. A neuropsychological assessment may point to changes in brain function and suggest possible methods and treatments for rehabilitation.

Assessments may take several hours or more of face-to-face testing and several additional hours for scoring, interpretation, and report preparation. Though the fees are generally covered by insurance, patients are responsible for any and all fees for the assessment. I have had an opportunity to clarify any questions and discuss any points of concern before signing.

Thus, even audio recording affects neuropsychological test performance. Constantinou et al. Therefore, the presence of a thirdparty observer may represent a threat to the validity and reliability of the data generated under such circumstances. In addition, exposure of test procedures to nonpsychologists jeopardizes the validity of these methods for future use The NAN Policy and Planning Committee, c.

Psychological tests

There are various ways of locating tests. Tests fall into two categories: those that are made freely available by researchers and commercial tests. A reference to the first type of test is usually a book chapter or journal article; for the second type it will be to a manual published by a commercial organisation. Full details of freely available public domain tests can be usually be found by consulting the relevant article; if full details are not given, you may be able obtain extra materials for example a list of test items by contacting the author by email. Commercially published tests must NOT be photocopied or scanned and if you wish to use these tests you should consult with your supervisor on the availability of funds to use a specific test. Often a literature search will produce a public domain equivalent of a commercial test.


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A Compendium of Neuropsychological Tests: Administration, Norms, and Commentary

It contains new chapters on test selection administration and preparation of the client; report writing and the informing interview; executive functions; occupational interest and aptitude; and malingering and symptom validity testing. The first four chapters focus on history taking, test selection, profiling of test results, report writing, and informing the client. The remaining thirteen chapters contain nearly all the tests covered in the first edition plus almost the same number of new ones.

A Compendium of Neuropsychological Tests

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A Compendium of Neuropsychological Tests: Administration, Norms, and Commentary

Du kanske gillar. Assessment of Aphasia Otfried Spreen Inbunden. Ladda ned. Spara som favorit. The Second Edition of this well-known Compendium has been considerably expanded and updated.

Neuropsychological assessment was traditionally carried out to assess the extent of impairment to a particular skill and to attempt to determine the area of the brain which may have been damaged following brain injury or neurological illness. With the advent of neuroimaging techniques, location of space-occupying lesions can now be more accurately determined through this method, so the focus has now moved on to the assessment of cognition and behaviour , including examining the effects of any brain injury or neuropathological process that a person may have experienced. A core part of neuropsychological assessment is the administration of neuropsychological tests for the formal assessment of cognitive function, though neuropsychological testing is more than the administration and scoring of tests and screening tools. It is essential that neuropsychological assessment also include an evaluation of the person's mental status.

 Подождите, - сказала Сьюзан, меняя позицию и придвигаясь ближе.  - Хорошо, теперь давайте. Дверь снова приоткрылась на дюйм. В Третьем узле виднелось голубоватое сияние: терминалы по-прежнему работали; они обеспечивали функционирование ТРАНСТЕКСТА, поэтому на них поступало аварийное питание. Сьюзан просунула в щель ногу в туфле Феррагамо и усилила нажим.

A Compendium of Neuropsychological Tests

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 - Увидишь Меган, передавай от меня привет! - Но Беккер уже исчез. Двуцветный вздохнул и поплелся к танцующим. Он был слишком пьян, чтобы заметить идущего следом за ним человека в очках в тонкой металлической оправе. Выбравшись наружу, Беккер оглядел стоянку в поисках такси. Ни одной машины. Он подбежал к крепко сбитому охраннику. - Мне срочно нужно такси.

 Помнишь, что случилось в прошлом году, когда Стратмор занимался антисемитской террористической группой в Калифорнии? - напомнила. Бринкерхофф кивнул. Это было одним из крупнейших достижений Стратмора. С помощью ТРАНСТЕКСТА, взломавшего шифр, ему удалось узнать о заговоре и бомбе, подложенной в школе иврита в Лос-Анджелесе. Послание террористов удалось расшифровать всего за двадцать минут до готовившегося взрыва и, быстро связавшись по телефону с кем нужно, спасти триста школьников.

(Livro) Spreen Compendium of Neuropsychological Tests

 - Я никогда не послал бы туда Дэвида, если бы считал, что это связано хоть с малейшей опасностью.  - Он улыбнулся.  - Поверь .

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