Football History And Rules PdfBy Cendrillon D. In and pdf 27.11.2020 at 21:37 7 min read
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American football , referred to simply as football in the United States and Canada and also known as gridiron , [nb 1] is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end.
American football , referred to simply as football in the United States and Canada and also known as gridiron , [nb 1] is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end. The offense , the team with possession of the oval-shaped football , attempts to advance down the field by running with the ball or passing it, while the defense , the team without possession of the ball, aims to stop the offense's advance and to take control of the ball for themselves.
The offense must advance at least ten yards in four downs or plays; if they fail, they turn over the football to the defense, but if they succeed, they are given a new set of four downs to continue the drive. Points are scored primarily by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone for a touchdown or kicking the ball through the opponent's goalposts for a field goal. The team with the most points at the end of a game wins.
American football evolved in the United States, originating from the sports of soccer and rugby. The first American football match was played on November 6, , between two college teams, Rutgers and Princeton , using rules based on the rules of soccer at the time. A set of rule changes drawn up from onward by Walter Camp , the "Father of American Football", established the snap , the line of scrimmage , eleven-player teams, and the concept of downs.
Later rule changes legalized the forward pass , created the neutral zone and specified the size and shape of the football. The sport is closely related to Canadian football , which evolved in parallel with and at the same time as the American game although their rules were developed independently from those of Camp.
Most of the features that distinguish American football from rugby and soccer are also present in Canadian football. The two sports are considered the primary variants of gridiron football. American football is the most popular sport in the United States. The most popular forms of the game are professional and college football , with the other major levels being high school and youth football.
As of [update] , nearly 1. The National Football League , the most popular American football league, has the highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the world. Its championship game, the Super Bowl , ranks among the most-watched club sporting events in the world. Other professional leagues exist worldwide, but the sport does not have the international popularity of other American sports like baseball or basketball. In the United States, American football is referred to as "football".
Although it could easily have been called "rugby" at this point, Harvard, one of the primary proponents of the rugby-style game, compromised and did not request the name of the sport be changed to "rugby".
American football evolved from the sports of rugby and soccer. Rugby, like American football, is a sport where two competing teams vie for control of a ball, which can be kicked through a set of goalposts or run into the opponent's goal area to score points.
What is considered to be the first American football game was played on November 6, , between Rutgers and Princeton , two college teams. They consisted of 25 players per team and used a round ball that could not be picked up or carried.
It could, however, be kicked or batted with the feet, hands, head or sides, with the objective being to advance it into the opponent's goal. Rutgers won the game 6—4. Representatives of Yale, Columbia , Princeton and Rutgers met on October 19, , to create a standard set of rules for use by all schools. Harvard abstained from the conference, as they favored a rugby-style game that allowed running with the ball. An Harvard—Yale game played under rugby-style rules was observed by two Princeton athletes who were impressed by it.
They introduced the sport to Princeton, a feat the Professional Football Researchers Association compared to "selling refrigerators to Eskimos ". Yale player Walter Camp , now regarded as the "Father of American Football",   secured rule changes in that reduced the size of each team from 15 to 11 players and instituted the snap to replace the chaotic and inconsistent scrum. The introduction of the snap resulted in an unexpected consequence. Prior to the snap, the strategy had been to punt if a scrum resulted in bad field position.
However, a group of Princeton players realized that as the snap was uncontested, they could now hold the ball indefinitely to prevent their opponent from scoring. In , in a game between Yale and Princeton, both teams used this strategy to maintain their undefeated records. Each team held the ball, gaining no ground, for an entire half, resulting in a 0—0 tie.
This "block game" proved extremely unpopular with both teams' spectators and fans. A rule change was necessary to prevent this strategy from taking hold, and a reversion to the scrum was considered.
However, Camp successfully proposed a rule in that limited each team to three downs , or tackles, to advance the ball 5 yards 4. Failure to advance the ball the required distance within those three downs would result in control of the ball being forfeited to the other team.
This change effectively made American football a separate sport from rugby, and the resulting five-yard lines added to the field to measure distances made it resemble a gridiron in appearance. Additionally, tackling below the waist was legalized,  and a static line of scrimmage was instituted.
Despite these new rules, football remained a violent sport. Dangerous mass-formations like the flying wedge resulted in serious injuries and deaths. The legal forward pass was introduced in , although its impact was initially minimal due to the restrictions placed on its use. The idea of a yard-wider field was opposed by Harvard due to the size of the new Harvard Stadium. To reduce infighting and dirty play between teams, the neutral zone was created along the width of the football before the snap.
This is the first recorded instance of a player being paid to participate in a game of American football , although many athletic clubs in the s offered indirect benefits, such as helping players attain employment, giving out trophies or watches that players could pawn for money, or paying double in expense money. Despite these extra benefits, the game had a strict sense of amateurism at the time, and direct payment to players was frowned upon, if not prohibited outright.
Over time, professional play became increasingly common, and with it came rising salaries and unpredictable player movement, as well as the illegal payment of college players who were still in school. The National Football League NFL , a group of professional teams that was originally established in as the American Professional Football Association, aimed to solve these problems.
This new league's stated goals included an end to bidding wars over players, prevention of the use of college players, and abolition of the practice of paying players to leave another team. The dominant form of football at the time was played at the collegiate level. The game, a 23—17 overtime victory by the Colts, was seen by millions of television viewers and had a major impact on the popularity of the sport.
This, along with the innovations introduced by the new American Football League AFL in the early s, helped football to become the most popular sport in the United States by the mids. The AFL began in relative obscurity but eventually thrived, with an initial television contract with the ABC television network.
Meanwhile, the AFL introduced many new features to professional football in the United States: official time was kept on a scoreboard clock rather than on a watch in the referee's pocket, as the NFL did; optional two-point conversions by pass or run after touchdowns; names on the jerseys of players; and several others, including expansion of the role of minority players, actively recruited by the league in contrast to the NFL.
The bidding war for players ended in when NFL owners approached the AFL regarding a merger, and the two leagues agreed on one that took full effect in This agreement provided for a common draft that would take place each year, and it instituted an annual World Championship game to be played between the champions of each league. This championship game began play at the end of the season. Once the merger was completed, it was no longer a championship game between two leagues and reverted to the NFL championship game, which came to be known as the Super Bowl.
College football maintained a tradition of postseason bowl games. Each bowl game was associated with a particular conference and earning a spot in a bowl game was the reward for winning a conference. This arrangement was profitable, but it tended to prevent the two top-ranked teams from meeting in a true national championship game, as they would normally be committed to the bowl games of their respective conferences.
Several systems have been used since to determine a national champion of college football. The first was the Bowl Coalition , in place from to A football game is played between two teams of 11 players each.
Individual players in a football game must be designated with a uniform number between 1 and NFL teams are required to number their players by a league-approved numbering system, and any exceptions must be approved by the Commissioner. Although the sport is played almost exclusively by men, women are eligible to play in high school, college, and professional football.
No woman has ever played in the NFL, but women have played in high school and college football games. The role of the offensive unit is to advance the football down the field with the ultimate goal of scoring a touchdown. The offensive team must line up in a legal formation before they can snap the ball. An offensive formation is considered illegal if there are more than four players in the backfield or fewer than five players numbered 50—79 on the offensive line.
Interior offensive linemen are not allowed to move until the snap of the ball. The quarterback is the leader of the offense. Either the quarterback or a coach calls the plays. Quarterbacks typically inform the rest of the offense of the play in the huddle before the team lines up. The quarterback lines up behind the center to take the snap and then hands the ball off, throws it or runs with it. The primary role of the halfback, also known as the running back or tailback, is to carry the ball on running plays.
Halfbacks may also serve as receivers. Fullbacks tend to be larger than halfbacks and function primarily as blockers, but they are sometimes used as runners in short-yardage situations  and are seldom used in passing situations. The offensive line OL consists of several players whose primary function is to block members of the defensive line from tackling the ball carrier on running plays or sacking the quarterback on passing plays.
The principal receivers are the wide receivers WR and the tight ends TE. The main goal of the wide receiver is to catch passes thrown by the quarterback,  but they may also function as decoys or as blockers during running plays. Tight ends line up outside the tackles and function both as receivers and as blockers.
The role of the defense is to prevent the offense from scoring by tackling the ball carrier or by forcing turnovers interceptions or fumbles. Defensive ends line up on the ends of the line, while defensive tackles line up inside, between the defensive ends. The primary responsibilities of defensive ends and defensive tackles are to stop running plays on the outside and inside, respectively, to pressure the quarterback on passing plays, and to occupy the line so that the linebackers can break through.
Linebackers line up behind the defensive line but in front of the defensive backfield. Linebackers are the defensive leaders and call the defensive plays. Their diverse roles include defending the run, pressuring the quarterback, and guarding backs, wide receivers and tight ends in the passing game.
The defensive backfield , often called the secondary, consists of cornerbacks CB and safeties S. Safeties are themselves divided into free safeties FS and strong safeties SS. Safeties line up between the cornerbacks but farther back in the secondary. Safeties are the last line of defense and are responsible for stopping deep passing plays as well as running plays. The special teams unit is responsible for all kicking plays. The special teams unit of the team in control of the ball tries to execute field goal FG attempts, punts and kickoffs , while the opposing team's unit will aim to block or return them.
The long snapper's job is to snap the football to the holder, who will catch and position it for the placekicker.
It is played by over million men and women of all ages in more than countries. Although nobody really knows when people started to play football, historians think that some form of the game was played in ancient cultures like China, Egypt or Rome. Modern football, however , started in England. At the end of the 17th century it was played by young people from rich families and between school teams. In the Football Association was founded in England and the first sets of rules were made. By the end of the 19th century the game had spread throughout the rest of the world.
Welcome to FootballHistory. Football or soccer as the game is called in some parts of the world has a long history. Football in its current form arose in England in the middle of the 19th century. But alternative versions of the game existed much earlier and are a part of the football history.
Football is a family of team sports that involve, to varying degrees, kicking a ball to score a goal. Unqualified, the word football normally means the form of football that is the most popular where the word is used. Sports commonly called football include association football known as soccer in some countries ; gridiron football specifically American football or Canadian football ; Australian rules football ; rugby football either rugby union or rugby league ; and Gaelic football.
American Football, the well known full-contact sport is followed from the English Rugby in the 19th century. The aim of the game is to bring the ball across the field into the opponents end-zone. Today football is one of the most popular sports in America, right behind baseball. Every year the Super-Bowl is a big event like the World Cup.
Only the goalkeeper is permitted to handle the ball and may do so only within the penalty area surrounding the goal. The team that scores more goals wins. Modern football originated in Britain in the 19th century.
Introduction to Football
Football is one of the world's most popular games. It is played in nearly every country, by everyone from kids in vacant lots and back streets to professional players in giant stadiums. Professional football is watched by billions of people all over the world, and is probably the world's most popular spectator sport. The earliest known form of the game was developed in China around B. It was known as cuju 'kick-ball' and was played with a leather ball.
- Скажи первое, что придет в голову. - Ассоциативный ряд? - по-прежнему недоумевал Дэвид. - Стандартная для АНБ процедура. Мне нужно знать, с кем я имею. - Глаза ее смотрели сурово.
- Танкадо избавился от кольца. Он хотел, чтобы оно оказалось как можно дальше от него - чтобы мы его никогда не нашли. - Но, директор, - возразила Сьюзан, - это не имеет смысла. Если Танкадо не понял, что стал жертвой убийства, зачем ему было отдавать ключ. - Согласен, - сказал Джабба.
Пусть хорошенько подумает, прежде чем затевать очередную авантюру с целью спасения мира.
Ему показалось, что внутри звучали какие-то голоса. Он постучал. - Hola. Тишина.
Верно! - сказал Беккер с экрана. - Может быть, у этих элементов разное число протонов или чего-то .