Agincourt Henry V And The Battle That Made England PdfBy Zelmar V. In and pdf 24.12.2020 at 13:28 3 min read
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University of Southampton research into the Battle of Agincourt, and on the late medieval soldier more generally, has impacted widely on the public, enriched popular understanding and enjoyment of history, and challenged widely held beliefs.
The struggle involved several generations of English and French claimants to the crown and actually occupied a period of more than years. This confiscation, however, had been preceded by periodic fighting over the question of English fiefs in France going back to the 12th century. They came into conflict over a series of issues, including disputes over English territorial possessions in France and the legitimate succession to the French throne.
Hundred Years' War
Participants in the battle of Agincourt act. There is no doubt that the army with which Henry V defeated the French at Agincourt on 25 October was outnumbered by the enemy, if less so than was once believed.
But it was also methodically recruited and professionally organized, and for posterity has the additional value—thanks to the survival of exchequer pay records—of being very well documented.
Musters taken before embarkation and retinue lists returned after the campaign provide the names of over participants out of a probable total force of about 12,, 20 per cent of whom were men-at-arms and the remainder archers. Most of these contingents were also raised by individuals, over of whom entered into indentures with the crown to provide troops.
The size of the companies they promised varied considerably. The king's brothers, Thomas, duke of Clarence , and Humphrey, duke of Gloucester , had the largest, at and men respectively. There were 43 peers in England in At least 60 knights indented and over 30 more served within the retinues of the nobility.
Fourteen out of the 24 members of the Order of the Garter and at least 73 of the MPs elected to parliaments between and served on the campaign. The retinues brought by such men could be quite large. Sir William Bourchier , a wealthy and well-connected knight his wife Anne of Woodstock was the king's cousin contracted to bring 90 mounted archers and 29 men-at-arms, and in fact led a force of men at Agincourt.
Sir Thomas Chaworth d. Several of those who entered into indentures were office-holders or tenants in the widespread estates of the duchy of Lancaster , men who had a strong hereditary interest in serving the duke who was also their king. They included the diplomat Sir Walter Hungerford , whose wish, recorded in the Gesta Henrici Quinti , for 10, more men was transferred by Shakespeare to the earl of Westmorland not in fact present in France , Sir William Harrington [ see under Harrington family ], who may have carried the king's banner, the Nottinghamshire soldier Sir Thomas Rempston , and Lancashire gentry like Sir John Pilkington d.
At the other end of the social scale there were archers and men-at-arms who offered only their own service, or else that of themselves with a couple of other men. At least men brought fewer than 10 soldiers. A typical example was Dafydd Gam esquire of Brecon, a victim of the battle, who brought 3 archers, one of them his son-in-law, Roger Fychan [ see under Vaughan family ].
In addition, companies of archers were raised in Cheshire and Lancashire The latter was divided into ten fifty-strong companies headed by 8 knights and 3 esquires. When the company led by Sir James Harrington passed near Salisbury on 4 August en route for the embarkation at Southampton, a dispute arose with the inhabitants that led to the deaths of four of the city's men. In south Wales the chamberlain John Merbury raised from the counties of Carmarthen and Cardigan 10 men-at-arms, 13 mounted archers, and foot archers, and from the lordship of Brecon 10 men-at-arms and foot archers, making Welsh archers in all, the same number as from Lancashire.
The soldiers were supported by tentmakers, tailors, shoemakers, bowyers, armourers, wheelwrights, labourers, carpenters, stonemasons, smiths, and waggoners, and by a strong company of German gunners. Sir John Greyndore , a sixty-year-old knight with lands in and around the forest of Dean and extensive military experience in the Welsh wars, commanded a company of 6 master miners and their assistants. The king also had his chapel, headed by its dean, Edmund Lacy , and 17 minstrels, as well as his physician, Nicholas Colnet , and two surgeons, Thomas Morstede and William Bradwardine , with their assistants and a small bodyguard of archers.
William Bruges , Guyenne herald, also accompanied the army. The shipping account for the return voyage of the company of Richard de Vere, eleventh earl of Oxford , notes that each of his men-at arms had a page. The total number of participants was therefore larger than simply the paid troops, although household officials and servants often served as soldiers. This was certainly the case for those of the royal household, where men from all departments from the bakehouse to the chamber both served in person and brought along a few archers each.
The receiver-general's account of the earl marshal, John V Mowbray , shows that among his archers were two yeomen of his chamber, his baker, his armourer, his minstrel, his havenar responsible for gathering supplies , and the yeoman of his robes, who purchased a new bed for the earl's use on the campaign.
The steward of his household served as a man-at-arms, bringing along three archers, while the master of the earl's horses, who also served as a man-at-arms, was accompanied by 2 archers. The earl's two chaplains also crossed with him, as did his heralds Nottingham and Cornwall, each accompanied by an archer. The earl had also recruited knights and esquires within his wider affinity, men like Sir Thomas Rokeby , who brought another man-at-arms and 9 archers. Within other retinues were archers who had particular occupations.
One man was a dyer, others included butchers, bakers, brewers, tailors, bladesmiths, barbers, and such like, no doubt providing useful services to their fellow soldiers as well as contributing to military strength. The geographical origins of the troops were diverse, but it is clear that those who indented to provide troops recruited locally as well as within their own households and families.
Michael de la Pole, second earl of Suffolk , was not only accompanied by his two sons, Michael de la Pole and William de la Pole , but also by John Fastolf and William Bedingfeld , representatives of well-known Norfolk families. Sir John Popham , a Hampshire knight who fought in the retinue of the duke of York , was bequeathed a life-rent from a Wiltshire manor in his lord's will. Within the English army there were therefore many different groups of men who would have known each other already, either as relatives, friends, colleagues, or neighbours, thrown together with others that they did not know and grouped into larger units.
This was the case at the siege of Harfleur, laid from 17 August until the town's surrender on 22 September, where the army was essentially divided into two parts, one stationed to the west under the king, and the other to the east under the duke of Clarence. A smaller group of peers and knights can also be detected operating as reconnaissance parties before and during the siege.
These included experienced veterans like Sir John Cornewall , as well as John Holland, earl of Huntingdon , for whom this was his first known military endeavour. The young earl was the stepson of Cornewall , since the latter had married in his widowed mother, Elizabeth , who was herself paternal aunt of Henry V as a daughter of John of Gaunt. Family connections can be taken further: Huntingdon's elder sister Alice was the wife of the earl of Oxford , who was also serving on the campaign.
Huntingdon was not the only youthful nobleman to be blooded in For the year-old Thomas Montagu, fourth earl of Salisbury , the French expedition of marked the beginning of a notable military career. Others were even younger. The duke of Clarence had with him his own stepson, Henry Beaufort, earl of Somerset , then aged fourteen. Alongside him was the seventeen-year-old Humphrey, Lord Fitzwalter , who died at the siege on 1 September.
Not all of the army went on to fight at Agincourt. Dysentery developed in the damp and crowded conditions of the siege, and was no respecter of persons. Richard Courtenay , bishop of Norwich, one of the king's closest friends, died on 15 September, and the earl of Suffolk died three days later.
Permission was given for 2 men-at-arms and 4 archers on 4 October to accompany the earl's body home for burial at Wingfield Suffolk. Deaths are seen in at least fourteen other retinues, affecting men-at-arms and archers alike.
Many more were invalided home. Within Suffolk's retinue these included his son William , John Fastolf , William Bedingfeld , 7 other men-at-arms, and 3 archers. Five high-ranking nobles were forced to return home: the duke of Clarence , his stepson the earl of Somerset , the earl marshal, the earl of March , and Thomas Fitzalan, fifth earl of Arundel.
Arundel returned to England on 28 September, made his will at his castle of Arundel on 10 October, and was dead three days later. Nineteen men-at-arms and 68 of his archers out of a total company of had to be invalided home, implying that they had served in his company in the king's siege camp, but it was possible to find replacements for two-thirds of the men-at-arms and all of the archers, suggesting that reinforcements had crossed from England and that there were supernumeraries at the siege ready to enter into royal wages.
The king was keen to avoid desertion and therefore ordered lists to be made of those returning home. These total at least men but include servants, priests, and support staff as well as paid troops.
A more significant drain on the army was the need to install a garrison of men-at-arms and archers at Harfleur under the command of Thomas Beaufort, earl of Dorset , half-brother of Henry IV. His retinue, as well as those of Sir Edward Hastings and William, Baron Clinton , was transferred wholesale into the garrison, and boosted by men drawn from around 20 other companies, for instance the one led by Sir Thomas Carew , who had recently been engaged in keeping the channel safe for the army's crossing.
The remainder of the army, about strong, left Harfleur between 6 and 8 October. After a circuitous mile route it arrived at Agincourt on Thursday 24 October. A few were killed or taken prisoner en route , including 7 of the Lancashire archers captured on the eve of battle as they reconnoitred the field. On the day itself Henry placed himself and his household in the centre, with command of the most dangerous position, the vanguard on the right, being given to his cousin, Edward, duke of York , and the rearguard on the left to Thomas Camoys, Baron Camoys , a veteran in his mid-sixties who was related to the king by marriage.
Some archers were placed in the front to protect the men-at-arms, but the majority were stationed on the flanks protected by stakes. A crack force of archers was sent behind enemy lines. Losses were minimal and confined largely to the vanguard. Not only did the duke of York die but also 90 men in his retinue.
The new earl of Suffolk was probably also in the vanguard, since he too met his death, as did Sir Richard Kyghley , one of the commanders of the Lancashire archers. Although made up of many different retinues, Henry's army was strengthened by pre-existing ties of locality and household within retinues, and by the cohesion that the long siege and march generated, not least as during the crossing of northern France the army was already organized into the divisions in which it fought at the battle itself.
Despite the loss of key friends and commanders at Harfleur, Henry had still had ample men of experience. Others had previously fought in France. Sir Thomas Erpingham , who gave the signal for the archers to begin firing, had served Edward, the Black Prince , in Aquitaine as long ago as , while Sir Gilbert Umfraville [ see under Umfraville, Sir Robert ] and Ralph Cromwell had more recent experience of continental warfare: the former served alongside the earl of Arundel in support of the Burgundians at St Cloud in , while the latter was in the army sent under the duke of Clarence to support the Armagnacs in Cromwell lived until , Sir Thomas Rempston until By then Henry V's great victory, and the men who fought in it, must have been well on the way to becoming the stuff of legend.
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Search within Show Summary Details Participants in the battle of Agincourt act. Leaders and followers Musters taken before embarkation and retinue lists returned after the campaign provide the names of over participants out of a probable total force of about 12,, 20 per cent of whom were men-at-arms and the remainder archers. The composition of the army The soldiers were supported by tentmakers, tailors, shoemakers, bowyers, armourers, wheelwrights, labourers, carpenters, stonemasons, smiths, and waggoners, and by a strong company of German gunners.
Harfleur Within the English army there were therefore many different groups of men who would have known each other already, either as relatives, friends, colleagues, or neighbours, thrown together with others that they did not know and grouped into larger units.
Battle of Agincourt
Participants in the battle of Agincourt act. There is no doubt that the army with which Henry V defeated the French at Agincourt on 25 October was outnumbered by the enemy, if less so than was once believed. But it was also methodically recruited and professionally organized, and for posterity has the additional value—thanks to the survival of exchequer pay records—of being very well documented. Musters taken before embarkation and retinue lists returned after the campaign provide the names of over participants out of a probable total force of about 12,, 20 per cent of whom were men-at-arms and the remainder archers. Most of these contingents were also raised by individuals, over of whom entered into indentures with the crown to provide troops. The size of the companies they promised varied considerably.
Battle of Agincourt. Henry IV — Owen Glendower c. He was thrust into prominence by his father's usurpation of the throne in From then on Henry took a prominent part in affairs. Between and he was mostly in the west, concerned with the war against the Welsh. Between and there seems to have been tension between the king and the prince.
The high risks from this course of action are also brought out. Once more unto the breach, dear friends, once more; Or close the wall up with our English dead. And you, good yeoman, Whose limbs were made in England, show us here The mettle of your pasture; let us swear That you are worth your breeding; which I doubt not; For there is none of you so mean and base, That hath not noble lustre in your eyes. See St. Crispin's Day Speech. Let me speak proudly: tell the constable We are but warriors for the working-day; Our gayness and our gilt are all besmirch'd With rainy marching in the painful field; And time hath worn us into slovenry: But, by the mass, our hearts are in the trim;.
The first deals with the inexorable countdown to war as Henry stamped his authority on his own kingdom, exploited the internal divisions caused by the French civil.
Hundred Years’ War
After several decades of relative peace, the English had resumed the war in amid the failure of negotiations with the French. In the ensuing campaign, many soldiers died from disease, and the English numbers dwindled; they tried to withdraw to English-held Calais but found their path blocked by a considerably larger French army. Despite the disadvantage, the battle ended in an overwhelming tactical victory for the English. King Henry V of England led his troops into battle and participated in hand-to-hand fighting.
The play is set in England in the early fifteenth century. Several bitter civil wars have left the people of England restless and dissatisfied. Henry lays claim to certain parts of France, based on his distant roots in the French royal family and on a very technical interpretation of ancient land laws. When the young prince, or Dauphin, of France sends Henry an insulting message in response to these claims, Henry decides to invade France.
Two factors lay at the origin of the conflict: first, the status of the duchy of Guyenne or Aquitaine -though it belonged to the kings of England, it remained a fief of the French crown, and the kings of England wanted independent possession; second, as the closest relatives of the last direct Capetian king Charles IV, who had died in , the kings of England from claimed the crown of France. Theoretically, the French kings, possessing the financial and military resources of the most populous and powerful state in western Europe, held the advantage over the smaller, more sparsely populated English kingdom. However, the expeditionary English army, well disciplined and successfully using their longbows to stop cavalry charges, proved repeatedly victorious over much larger French forces: significant victories occurred by sea at Sluys , and by land at Crecy and Poitiers In , King John of France, in order to save his title, was forced to accept the Treaty of Calais, which granted complete independence to the duchy of Guyenne, now considerably enlarged to include almost a third of France. However, his son Charles V, with the help of his commander in chief Bertrand du Guesclin, by had succeeded in reconquering almost all the ceded territory, notably by a series of sieges.
Фонтейн заставил Мидж и Бринкерхоффа стоять, пока сам он молча совершал свой обычный ритуал заваривания кофе сорта Гватемальская ява. Затем он сел за письменный стол и начал их допрашивать, как школьников, вызванных в кабинет директора, а они по-прежнему стояли. Говорила Мидж - излагая серию необычайных событий, которые заставили их нарушить неприкосновенность кабинета. - Вирус? - холодно переспросил директор. - Вы оба думаете, что в нашем компьютере вирус.
На своем Скайпейджере он установил режим вибрации без звонка, значит, кто-то прислал коммандеру сообщение. Шестью этажами ниже Стратмор стоял возле рубильника. В служебных помещениях ТРАНСТЕКСТА было черно как глубокой ночью. Минуту он наслаждался полной темнотой. Сверху хлестала вода, прямо как во время полночного шторма. Стратмор откинул голову назад, словно давая каплям возможность смыть с него вину. Я из тех, кто добивается своей цели.
Беккер показал на бутылки, которые смахнул на пол. - Они же пустые. - Пустые, но мои, черт тебя дери. - Прошу прощения, - сказал Беккер, поворачиваясь, чтобы уйти.
- Так к чему ты клонишь. - Я думаю, что Стратмор сегодня воспользовался этим переключателем… для работы над файлом, который отвергла программа Сквозь строй. - Ну и. Для того и предназначен этот переключатель, верно.
- Он потянулся к клавиатуре. - Мистер Беккер, пожалуйста, продиктуйте надпись.