Air Pollution And Global Warming History Science And Solutions Pdf


By Misty M.
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30.11.2020 at 05:27
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air pollution and global warming history science and solutions pdf

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Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science, and Solutions

While Covid has shaken much of human society, the threat posed by global warming has not gone away. Human activities have increased carbon dioxide emissions, driving up temperatures. Extreme weather and melting polar ice are among the possible effects. The Earth's average temperature is about 15C but has been much higher and lower in the past. There are natural fluctuations in the climate but scientists say temperatures are now rising faster than at many other times.

Natural gas is a fossil fuel, though the global warming emissions from its combustion are much lower than those from coal or oil. Natural gas emits 50 to 60 percent less carbon dioxide CO2 when combusted in a new, efficient natural gas power plant compared with emissions from a typical new coal plant [ 1 ]. The drilling and extraction of natural gas from wells and its transportation in pipelines results in the leakage of methane, primary component of natural gas that is 34 times stronger than CO2 at trapping heat over a year period and 86 times stronger over 20 years [ 3 ]. Whether natural gas has lower life cycle greenhouse gas emissions than coal and oil depends on the assumed leakage rate, the global warming potential of methane over different time frames, the energy conversion efficiency, and other factors [ 5 ]. One recent study found that methane losses must be kept below 3. And if burning natural gas in vehicles is to deliver even marginal benefits, methane losses must be kept below 1 percent and 1.

Global Warming / Climate Change Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

Jacobson Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, This book provides an introduction to the history, science, and solutions of local and global air pollution and global warming. It first introduces the history of discovery of chemicals in the air, then discusses the historic evolution of the Earth's atmosphere and the structure and composition of the present-day atmosphere. Subsequently, it examines historical, scienctific, and regulatory aspects of five major air-related topics: urban outdoor air pollution, indoor air pollution, acid deposition, global stratospheric and Antarctic ozone reduction, and global warming. It also looks at the effects of meteorology on air pollution and vice-versa and the effects of pollution on visibility, ultraviolet radiation, and colors in the sky.

Global Warming

Changes in climate can result in impacts to local air quality. Atmospheric warming associated with climate change has the potential to increase ground-level ozone in many regions, which may present challenges for compliance with the ozone standards in the future. The impact of climate change on other air pollutants, such as particulate matter, is less certain, but research is underway to address these uncertainties.

The history of the scientific discovery of climate change began in the early 19th century when ice ages and other natural changes in paleoclimate were first suspected and the natural greenhouse effect was first identified. In the late 19th century, scientists first argued that human emissions of greenhouse gases could change the climate. Many other theories of climate change were advanced, involving forces from volcanism to solar variation. In the s, the evidence for the warming effect of carbon dioxide gas became increasingly convincing.

Efforts to address climate change should focus not only on substantially reducing carbon dioxide emissions, but also on actions to reduce those climate pollutants that remain in the atmosphere for much shorter periods of time. Despite their short atmospheric lifetimes, short-lived climate pollutants SLCPs —such as black carbon, methane, tropospheric ground-level ozone, and hydrofluorocarbons— have a high global warming potential. This means that, per molecule, they can warm the Earth faster than carbon dioxide. SLCPs are the second largest contributor to human-caused climate warming after carbon dioxide, contributing up to 45 percent of global warming to date, and targeted efforts to reduce SLCP emissions could slow the pace of global warming by 0.

Air Quality and Climate Change Research

КОД ОШИБКИ 22 Сьюзан нахмурилась и снова посмотрела в справочник. То, что она увидела, казалось лишенным всякого смысла.

1 Comments

Digna R.
04.12.2020 at 15:02 - Reply

What is global warming?

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