Collective Behavior And Social Movements PdfBy Octave D. In and pdf 01.12.2020 at 15:51 3 min read
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Collective behavior can result in social change through the formation of cohesive social movements. Collective behavior might also be defined as action that is neither conforming in which actors follow prevailing norms nor deviant in which actors violate those norms. Rather, collective behavior, a third form of action, takes place when norms are absent or unclear, or when they contradict each other. Scholars have devoted far less attention to collective behavior than they have to either conformity or deviance. Examples of collective behavior include: religious revival meetings like those depicted in the documentary Marjoe , a panic in a burning theater e. These diverse actions fall within the area sociologists call collective behavior. Traditionally in sociology, collective behavior is displayed by four types of groupings of people: the crowd, the public, the mass, and the social movement.
Although social movements differ in size, they are all essentially collective. That is, they result from the more or less spontaneous coming together of people whose relationships are not defined by rules and procedures but who merely share a common outlook on society. Collective behaviour in crowds, panics, and elementary forms milling, etc. When short-lived impulses give way to long-term aims, and when sustained association takes the place of situational groupings of people, the result is a social movement. A movement is not merely a perpetuated crowd, since a crowd does not possess organizational and motivational mechanisms capable of sustaining membership through periods of inaction and waiting. Furthermore, crowd mechanisms cannot be used to achieve communication and coordination of activity over a wide area, such as a nation or continent.
Collective behaviour , the kinds of activities engaged in by sizable but loosely organized groups of people. Episodes of collective behaviour tend to be quite spontaneous, resulting from an experience shared by the members of the group that engenders a sense of common interest and identity. Included in collective behaviour are the activities of people in crowds, panics, fads, fashions, crazes, publics, cults, and followings as well as more organized phenomena, such as reform and revolutionary social movements. Because it emphasizes groups, the study of collective behaviour is different from the study of individual behaviour, although inquiries into the motivations and attitudes of the individuals in these groupings are often carried out. Collective behaviour resembles organized group behaviour in that it consists of people acting together; but it is more spontaneous—and consequently more volatile and less predictable—than is behaviour in groups that have well-established rules and traditions specifying their purposes, membership, leadership, and method of operation. The U. The absence of formal rules by which to distinguish between members and outsiders, to identify leaders, to establish the aims of the collectivity, to set acceptable limits of behaviour for members, and to specify how collective decisions are to be made accounts for the volatility of collective behaviour.
The American Sociological Association submission portal will open on Nov. Announcing the Collective Behavior and Social Movements call for award nominations for Please read on for details on qualifications, submission process, and award committee memberships. Social Movement Studies. Covid is affecting many dimensions of social and political life. The pandemic and its political and social consequences present challenges to social movements in various ways. Lockdowns and restrictions have complicated many prominent forms of mobilization — such as street protests.
Collective intelligence Collective action Self-organized criticality Herd mentality Phase transition Agent-based modelling Synchronization Ant colony optimization Particle swarm optimization Swarm behaviour. Evolutionary computation Genetic algorithms Genetic programming Artificial life Machine learning Evolutionary developmental biology Artificial intelligence Evolutionary robotics. Reaction—diffusion systems Partial differential equations Dissipative structures Percolation Cellular automata Spatial ecology Self-replication. Rational choice theory Bounded rationality. The expression collective behavior was first used by Franklin Henry Giddings and employed later by Robert E. Turner and Lewis Killian , and Neil Smelser to refer to social processes and events which do not reflect existing social structure laws , conventions, and institutions , but which emerge in a "spontaneous" way.
21.1 Types of Collective Behavior
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Collective behavior is a term sociologists use to refer to a miscellaneous set of behaviors in which large numbers of people engage. More specifically, collective behavior refers to relatively spontaneous and relatively unstructured behavior by large numbers of individuals acting with or being influenced by other individuals. Relatively spontaneous means that the behavior is somewhat spontaneous but also somewhat planned, while relatively unstructured means that the behavior is somewhat organized and predictable but also somewhat unorganized and unpredictable. As we shall see, some forms of collective behavior are more spontaneous and unstructured than others, and some forms are more likely than others to involve individuals who act together as opposed to merely being influenced by each other. As a whole, though, collective behavior is regarded as less spontaneous and less structured than conventional behavior, such as what happens in a classroom, a workplace, or the other settings for everyday behavior with which we are very familiar.
A social movement is a loosely organized effort by a large group of people to achieve a particular goal, typically a social or political one. It is a type of group action and may involve individuals , organizations or both. Definitions of the term are slightly varied.
Characteristics of social movements
Mobilization: An International Quarterly 1 March ; 2 1 : 1— If it is reasonable to think of collective behavior and social movement CBSM studies as the production, organization, and cumulation of research findings, why are there so few efforts to carry out the second and third of these tasks, those of organizing and cumulating findings? One answer is that very few CBSM scholars in fact think in such terms. Instead, many if not most order CBSM in terms of other principles and these principles compete among themselves and with the goals of systematizing and cumulating research findings. In this article, I explain six of these competing principles and contrast them with the goal of systematizing research findings. I then explain four strategic and six operational decisions faced by anyone who does want to organize and cumulate CBSM research.
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