Electrical And Electronics Components Pdf

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electrical and electronics components pdf

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14 Essential Electronic Components and their Functions

Getting started with basic electronics is easier than you might think. This Instructable will hopefully demystify the basics of electronics so that anyone with an interest in building circuits can hit the ground running. This is a quick overview into practical electronics and it is not my goal to delve deeply into the science of electrical engineering.

If you are interested in learning more about the science of basic electronics, Wikipedia is a good place to start your search. By the end of this Instructable, anyone with an interest to learn basic electronics should be able to read a schematic and build a circuit using standard electronic components.

For a more comprehensive and hands-on overview of electronics, check out my Electronics Class. There are two types of electrical signals , those being alternating current AC , and direct current DC. With alternating current, the direction electricity flows throughout the circuit is constantly reversing. You may even say that it is alternating direction. The rate of reversal is measured in Hertz, which is the number of reversals per second. So, when they say that the US power supply is 60 Hz, what they mean is that it is reversing times per second twice per cycle.

With Direct Current, electricity flows in one direction between power and ground. In this arrangement there is always a positive source of voltage and ground 0V source of voltage. You can test this by reading a battery with a multimeter. For great instructions on how to do this, check out Ladyada's multimeter page you will want to measure voltage in particular.

Speaking of voltage, electricity is typically defined as having a voltage and a current rating. Voltage is obviously rated in Volts and current is rated in Amps. For instance, a brand new 9V battery would have a voltage of 9V and a current of around mA milliamps.

Electricity can also be defined in terms of resistance and watts. We will talk a little bit about resistance in the next step, but I am not going to be going over Watts in depth. As you delve deeper into electronics you will encounter components with Watt ratings. It is important to never exceed the Wattage rating of a component, but fortunately that Wattage of your DC power supply can easily be calculated by multiplying the voltage and current of your power source.

If you want a better understanding of these different measurements, what they mean, and how they relate, check out this informative video on Ohm's Law. Most basic electronic circuits use DC electricity. As such, all further discussion of electricity will revolve around DC electricity.

Note that some of the links on this page are affiliate links. This does not change the cost of the item for you. I reinvest whatever proceeds I receive into making new projects. If you would like any suggestions for alternative suppliers, please let me know. A circuit is a complete and closed path through which electric current can flow. In other words, a closed circuit would allow the flow of electricity between power and ground.

An open circuit would break the flow of electricity between power and ground. Anything that is part of this closed system and that allows electricity to flow between power and ground is considered to be part of the circuit. The next very important consideration to keep in mind is that electricity in a circuit must be used.

For instance, in the circuit above, the motor that electricity is flowing through is adding resistance to the flow of electricity.

Thus, all of the electricity passing through the circuit is being put to use. In other words, there needs to be something wired between positive and ground that adds resistance to the flow of electricity and uses it up.

If positive voltage is connected directly to ground and does not first pass through something that adds resistance, like a motor, this will result in a short circuit. This means that the positive voltage is connected directly to ground.

Likewise, if electricity passes through a component or group of components that does not add enough resistance to the circuit, a short will likewise occur see Ohm's Law video. It is very important to prevent short circuits by making sure that the positive voltage is never wired directly to ground. That said, always keep in mind that electricity always follows the path of least resistance to ground. What this means is that if you give positive voltage the choice to pass through a motor to ground, or follow a wire straight to ground, it will follow the wire because the wire provides the least resistance.

This also means that by using the wire to bypass the source of resistance straight to ground, you have created a short circuit. Always make sure that you never accidentally connect positive voltage to ground while wiring things in parallel. Also note that a switch does not add any resistance to a circuit and simply adding a switch between power and ground will create a short circuit.

When things are wired in series, things are wired one after another, such that electricity has to pass through one thing, then the next thing, then the next, and so on. In the first example, the motor, switch and battery are all wired in series because the only path for electricity to flow is from one, to the next, and to the next.

When things are wired in parallel, they are wired side by side, such that electricity passes through all of them at the same time, from one common point to another common point. In the next example, the motors are wired in parallel because the electricity passes through both motors from one common point to another common point.

So, the current is split between the motors in a parallel fashion, but still must pass in series from one part of the circuit to the next. If this does not make sense yet, do not worry. When you start to build your own circuits, all of this will start to become clear. In order to build circuits, you will need to become familiar with a few basic components. These components may seem simple, but are the bread and butter of most electronics projects. Thus, by learning about these few basic parts, you will be able to go a long way.

As the name implies, resistors add resistance to the circuit and reduces the flow of electrical current. It is represented in a circuit diagram as a pointy squiggle with a value next to it. The different markings on the resistor represent different values of resistance. These values are measured in ohms. Resistors also come with different wattage ratings. You read the values from left to right towards the typically gold band. The first two colors represent the resistor value, the third represents the multiplier, and the fourth the gold band represents the tolerance or precision of the component.

You can tell the value of each color by looking at a resistor color value chart. Any resistor of over ohms is typically shorted using the letter K. For instance, 1, would be 1K; 3,, would translate to 3. Values of ohms over a million are represented using the letter M. In this case, 1,, ohms would become 1M.

A capacitor is a component that stores electricity and then discharges it into the circuit when there is a drop in electricity. You can think of it as a water storage tank that releases water when there is a drought to ensure a steady stream. Capacitors are measured in Farads. The values that you will typically encounter in most capacitors are measured in picofarad pF , nanofarad nF , and microfarad uF.

These are often used interchangeably and it helps to have a conversion chart at hand. Ceramic disc capacitors are non-polarized, meaning that electricity can pass through them no matter how they are inserted in the circuit. They are typically marked with a number code which needs to be decoded.

Instructions for reading ceramic capacitors can be found here. This type of capacitor is typically represented in a schematic as two parallel lines. Electrolytic capacitors are typically polarized. This means that one leg needs to be connected to the ground side of the circuit and the other leg must be connected to power.

If it is connected backwards, it won't work correctly. Electrolytic capacitors have the value written on them, typically represented in uF. They also mark the leg which connects to ground with a minus symbol -. This capacitor is represented in a schematic as a side-by-side straight and curved line. The straight line represents the end which connects to power and the curve connected to ground.

Diodes are components which are polarized. They only allow electrical current to pass through them in one direction. This is useful in that it can be placed in a circuit to prevent electricity from flowing in the wrong direction. Another thing to keep in mind is that it requires energy to pass through a diode and this results in a drop of voltage. This is typically a loss of about 0. This is important to keep in mind for later when we talk about a special form of diodes called LEDs.

The ring found on one end of the diode indicates the side of the diode which connects to ground. This is the cathode. It then follows that the other side connects to power. This side is the anode. The part number of the diode is typically written on it, and you can find out its various electrical properties by looking up its datasheet. They are represented in schematic as a line with a triangle pointing at it. The line is that side which connected to ground and the bottom of the triangle connects to power.

A transistor takes in a small electrical current at its base pin and amplifies it such that a much larger current can pass between its collector and emitter pins. The amount of current that passes between these two pins is proportional to the voltage being applied at the base pin.

Here’s a Quick Way to Know about Major Electronic Components

Getting started with basic electronics is easier than you might think. This Instructable will hopefully demystify the basics of electronics so that anyone with an interest in building circuits can hit the ground running. This is a quick overview into practical electronics and it is not my goal to delve deeply into the science of electrical engineering. If you are interested in learning more about the science of basic electronics, Wikipedia is a good place to start your search. By the end of this Instructable, anyone with an interest to learn basic electronics should be able to read a schematic and build a circuit using standard electronic components. For a more comprehensive and hands-on overview of electronics, check out my Electronics Class.

An electronic circuit is composed of individual electronic components , such as resistors , transistors , capacitors , inductors and diodes , connected by conductive wires or traces through which electric current can flow. To be referred to as electronic , rather than electrical , generally at least one active component must be present. The combination of components and wires allows various simple and complex operations to be performed: signals can be amplified, computations can be performed, and data can be moved from one place to another. Circuits can be constructed of discrete components connected by individual pieces of wire, but today it is much more common to create interconnections by photolithographic techniques on a laminated substrate a printed circuit board or PCB and solder the components to these interconnections to create a finished circuit. In an integrated circuit or IC, the components and interconnections are formed on the same substrate, typically a semiconductor such as doped silicon or less commonly gallium arsenide. An electronic circuit can usually be categorized as an analog circuit , a digital circuit , or a mixed-signal circuit a combination of analog circuits and digital circuits. The most widely used semiconductor device in electronic circuits is the MOSFET metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor.


An electronic component is any basic discrete device or physical entity in an electronic system used to affect electrons or their associated fields. Electronic components are mostly industrial products , available in a singular form and are not to be confused with electrical elements , which are conceptual abstractions representing idealized electronic components. Electronic components have a number of electrical terminals or leads.

Learning about basic electronics and creating your own projects is a lot easier than you may think. You will then learn about schematic diagrams and how they are used to design and build circuits. And finally, you will put this information to use by creating your first basic circuit. Before you get started, make sure your electronic workbench is properly set up.

Basic Electronics

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 Я кое-что нашла, сэр! - возбужденно сказала.  - Висячие строки в источнике. Альфа-группы повсюду. Джабба не шелохнулся. - Мы ищем цифровой ключ, черт его дери. А не альфа-группы. Ключ к шифру-убийце - это число.

 - Тем более приходи. Мы успеем выспаться перед поездкой на север. Дэвид грустно вздохнул: - Потому-то я и звоню. Речь идет о нашей поездке. Нам придется ее отложить. - Что-о? - Сьюзан окончательно проснулась.

В XVI11 веке некий английский купец приобрел у севильской церкви три десятка бушелей апельсинов и, привезя их в Лондон, обнаружил, что фрукты горькие и несъедобные. Он попытался сделать из апельсиновой кожуры джем, но чтобы можно было взять его в рот, в него пришлось добавить огромное количество сахара. Так появился апельсиновый мармелад.

Немыслимо, - подумала. Согласно информации, появившейся в окне, команда была подана менее двадцати минут. Сьюзан помнила, что за последние двадцать минут вводила только свой персональный код, когда выходила переговорить со Стратмором. Невозможно представить, что машина могла спутать пароль с командой отключения Следопыта. Понимая, что теряет время, Сьюзан вызвала на экран регистр замка и проверила, верно ли был введен персональный код.

Колеса мотоцикла подпрыгнули, ударившись о бетонное ограждение, так что он едва сумел сохранить равновесие. Из-под колес взметнулся гравий. Мотоцикл начал подниматься по склону.

Они наклонялись и распрямлялись, прижав руки к бокам, а их головы при этом раскачивались, как безжизненные шары, едва прикрепленные к негнущимся спинам. Какие-то безумцы ныряли со сцены в это людское море, и его волны швыряли их вперед и назад, как волейбольные мячи на пляже. Откуда-то сверху падали пульсирующие стробоскопические вспышки света, придававшие всему этому сходство со старым немым кино.

 Тогда в другой .

Компьютер только что отдал ее Следопыту команду самоуничтожиться раньше времени, так что ей не удастся найти то, что она ищет. Помня, что не должен оставлять следов, Хейл вошел в систему регистрации действий и удалил все свои команды, после чего вновь ввел личный пароль Сьюзан. Монитор погас.

Что бы он ни делал - спал, стоял под душем, ел, - ключ всегда при нем, в любую минуту готовый для опубликования. - На пальце? - усомнилась Сьюзан.  - У всех на виду.

Ее удивило, что он так легко клюнул на эту приманку. - Коммандер, - возразила она, - Танкадо отлично понимал, что АНБ может найти его переписку в Интернете, он никогда не стал бы доверять секреты электронной почте. Это ловушка.

 - Она бросила пачку компьютерных распечаток ему на стол. - Я что, бухгалтер. - Нет, милый, ты директорский автопилот.


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