Human Growth And Development Lecture Notes Pdf


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25.11.2020 at 23:33
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human growth and development lecture notes pdf

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Human Growth and Development

Adolescence Adolescence is stage that begins at onset of puberty. In many societies, rites of passage, or initiation, mark transition from childhood to adulthood. Usually take place around puberty. Serve as public acknowledgment of transition from childhood to adulthood.

Adolescence is period of transition. Socially - between childhood and adulthood. Onset Adolescence marked by two biological changes.

Growth Spurt - marked increase in height and weight. Sexual maturation - in males the appearance of live sperm in semen; in females the first menstrual period - the menarche.

The major task of adolescence is resolution of identity crisis, the struggle to define and integrate sense of who one is, what one is to do in life, and what one's attitudes, beliefs, and values should be.

Interdependence - building new commitments and intimacies in interpersonal relationships. Reaching and maintaining satisfactory performance in occupations. Continuity and Discontinuity Developmental stages are periods during which physical or psychological functioning differs qualitatively from that of either earlier or later periods.

A critical period is a sensitive time in organism's development when organism may acquire particular behavior conditional on the occurrence of certain stimuli and events.

Nature and Nurture Nature-nurture controversy - long-standing debate over relative importance of heredity and learning in many aspects of functioning. John Locke , British philosopher, believed that human infants born without knowledge or skills.

Jean Rousseau , French philosopher, argued that we bring into our world our evolutionary legacy. Research Designs Normative investigations - specific age or stage of development. Longitudinal design - observe and test same individuals over long period of time.

Cross-sectional design - Subject groups different ages observed and immediately compared to each other. Sequential design - subjects spanning specific, short-age range repeatedly observed over time. Data Collection Habituation - basic response process where familiar sights, sounds or tastes no longer demand attention.

Dishabituation - infant responds to new stimulus, revealing that perceive it to be different and novel. Physical Aspects of Development Development begins at conception when sperm cells unite with the ovum. Period from conception to birth called the prenatal period. Stages of Prenatal Development Stage of zygote - shortest, from conception until approximately 2 wks later.

Ovum usually fertilized in one of fallopian tubes. Stage of embryo - lasts 6 weeks, from week 2 to week eight. At Beginning three types of cells can be differentiated. Unborn organism most sensitive to external or environmental influences. Stage of fetus - longest, lasting until birth.

Fetus ready to be born at about days. Environmental Influences On Prenatal Development During rapid stage prenatal development, even small environmental disturbances can have serious and lasting consequences. Maternal malnutrition - increases in miscarriages, stillbirths, and premature births. Alcohol - heavy drinking increases probability of having smaller babies and babies with retarded physical growth, poor coordination, poor muscle tone, and intellectual retardation; collectively these are called fetal alcohol syndrome.

FAS leading preventable cause of birth defects leading to mental retardation. Total abstinence from alcohol during pregnancy best advice. Drugs should be used with great care and only after consulting with physician. Tetracycline taken during pregnancy colors fetal bones and teeth yellow. Even aspirin become suspect as potential complications.

Maternal stress causes hormone changes and reduces oxygen available to fetus. Motor Development First two weeks of life newborn referred to as neonate. All human senses function at birth -- Infants focus on objects at 1 or 2 feet; visual acuity shows 3 to fourfold improvement during first year. Stages of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor stage 0 to 24 months discover by sensing and doing.

Class Notes - Developmental Psychology.

human growth and development notes

Adolescence Adolescence is stage that begins at onset of puberty. In many societies, rites of passage, or initiation, mark transition from childhood to adulthood. Usually take place around puberty. Serve as public acknowledgment of transition from childhood to adulthood. Adolescence is period of transition. Socially - between childhood and adulthood.

Welcome to life span, growth and development. This is the study of how and why people change or remain the same over time. Although this course is offered in psychology, this is a very interdisciplinary course. Psychologists, nutritionists, sociologists, anthropologists, educators, and health care professionals all contribute to our knowledge of life span. We will look at how we change physically over time from early development through aging and death. We examine cognitive change-or how our ability to think and remember changes over time. We look at how our concerns and psychological state is influenced by age and finally, how our social relationships change throughout life.

Lecture Materials

This is an archived course. A more recent version may be available at ocw. The actual size of these slides is Use Adobe Reader's print options to scale the slide to fit the page before printing.

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3 Comments

Domtkdetnonce
01.12.2020 at 12:50 - Reply

Some of the senses of a new-born are already functional except the vision.

EugГЁne B.
02.12.2020 at 05:10 - Reply

Human capital: productive, produced, earns a return through higher wage, depreciates.

Eliana F.
05.12.2020 at 14:09 - Reply

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