Difference Between Deductive And Inductive Reasoning PdfBy Khalil R. In and pdf 25.11.2020 at 10:27 6 min read
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- Inductive vs. deductive reasoning
- Deductive and Inductive Arguments
- 'Deduction' vs. 'Induction' vs. 'Abduction'
The main difference between inductive and deductive approaches to research is that whilst a deductive approach is aimed and testing theory, an inductive approach is concerned with the generation of new theory emerging from the data.
Most everyone who thinks about how to solve problems in a formal way has run across the concepts of deductive and inductive reasoning. Both deduction and induction help us navigate real-world problems, such as who committed a crime, the most likely cause of an accident, or how many planets might contain life in the Milky Way galaxy. Both deduction and induction are a type of inference, which means reaching a conclusion based on evidence and reasoning. Deduction moves from idea to observation, while induction moves from observation to idea. Deduction is idea-first, followed by observations and a conclusion.
Inductive vs. deductive reasoning
The main difference between inductive and deductive approaches to research is that whilst a deductive approach is aimed and testing theory, an inductive approach is concerned with the generation of new theory emerging from the data. A deductive approach usually begins with a hypothesis, whilst an inductive approach will usually use research questions to narrow the scope of the study.
For deductive approaches the emphasis is generally on causality, whilst for inductive approaches the aim is usually focused on exploring new phenomena or looking at previously researched phenomena from a different perspective. Inductive approaches are generally associated with qualitative research, whilst deductive approaches are more commonly associated with quantitative research. However, there are no set rules and some qualitative studies may have a deductive orientation.
One specific inductive approach that is frequently referred to in research literature is grounded theory, pioneered by Glaser and Strauss. This approach necessitates the researcher beginning with a completely open mind without any preconceived ideas of what will be found.
The aim is to generate a new theory based on the data. Once the data analysis has been completed the researcher must examine existing theories in order to position their new theory within the discipline.
Grounded theory is not an approach to be used lightly. It requires extensive and repeated sifting through the data and analysing and re-analysing multiple times in order to identify new theory. It is an approach best suited to research projects where there the phenomena to be investigated has not been previously explored. The most important point to bear in mind when considering whether to use an inductive or deductive approach is firstly the purpose of your research; and secondly the methods that are best suited to either test a hypothesis, explore a new or emerging area within the discipline, or to answer specific research questions.
Gabriel, D. Inductive and deductive approaches to research. Pingback: Methods and methodology Deborah Gabriel. Pingback: PhD research: qualitative data analysis Deborah Gabriel.
Hi, yes the explanation was helpful because it was simple to read and pretty much, straight to the point. It has given me a brief understanding for what I needs. Thanks — Chantal. Deborah, thanks for this elaboration. Deductive research is more aimed towards testing a hypothesis and therefore is an approach more suited to working with quantitative data. The process normally involves reproducing a previous study and seeing if the same results are produced.
This does not lend itself to generating new theories since that is not the object of the research. Between inductive and deductive approaches there is also a third approach which I will write a post on shortly — abdductive. Dear Deborah, it has been very long time since you posted this article.
However, I can testify that it is very helpful for a novis reseracher like me. Deborah, thank you for given info, but i was in confusion reg, differences between deductive, inductive, abductive and new one Hypothetico-deductive approaches. Can it be possible to email the differences, its applications, tools used and scientific nature, to build a theory using quantitative survey method.
My email Id is: madhu4m gmail. Thanking you awaiting for your mail soon. Hi Madhu. You cannot take short cuts by by asking someone me to simply provide you with ready answers to your queries — especially when I do not have the time to do so! Great saying…every student at every level, should be critical analysts and critical thinkers. Thank u.. No — you have it the wrong way round — I suggest you read the article again and also engage in wider reading on research methods to gain a deeper understanding.
Deborah I appreciate so much in this article…I got what I am looking for… thanks for your contribution. Exactly, your work is simple and clear, that there are two research approaches, Inductive and deductive. Qualitative and Quantative approaches You gave clear differences in a balance, simple to understand, I suppose you are a teacher by profession.
This is how we share knowledge,and you become more knowledgable. Thank you Lambawi, I am glad that these posts are proving useful. I will endeavour to add some more in the coming weeks! Thank you very much for sharing knowledge with me.
It really much helpful while preparing my college exam. Thank —:. Thank you ever so much for making it simple and easily understandable. Would love to see more posts. Thank you. Thanks; this has been helpful in preparation for my forthcoming exams.
Hi, I had a question would you call process tracing technique an inductive or deductive approach? Hope you can help me with the same. Hi Achin. Process tracing is a qualitative analytical tool and therefore inductive rather than deductive, since its purpose is to identify new phenomena. You might find this journal article useful:. Preparing for my Research Methods exams and I'm grateful for your explanations. This is a full lecture made simple.
Thank you very much. I am very thankful for this information, madam you are just good. If you are believer, allow me to say, May God bless you with more knowledge and good health. I am currently doing Btech in forensic with Unisa would you be so kind and help with this question below and may I use your services while Iam doing this degree Please.
Deductive, which is not exploratory but designed to test a hypothesis. So this is unlike to be case study research but a quantitative study. Hi Deborah, I have been struggling with my research methods proposal, in finding the right methodology for my study. This is the only explanation out of all the books that I have read which really enables me to truly understand the meaning of Grounded Theory for which you describe as an inductive.
I just would like to say thank you for your explanation as this has helped me in a way, which I thought I would never get. Thank you Destini. In fact this has been very usefull information for me in my research,. It's very clear and easy to understand looking at the choice of language ,etc God bless you!! Unfortunately famous for terrorism, as from that background, you can understand the weakness of my educational background. I am struggling for MBA degree, and I was searching for Deductive and Inductive approaches, and then I found your best explained article here, already praised by many people.
My email is abdulwahab Is it possible to use deductive approach in research concerning what has happened in an industry? Thank you very much this information has been extremely helpful. I can now progress with my dissertation. Thanks for that good work Deborah. It has taken me quite a short time to read and understand. Many thanks to you, I really appreciate u on ur information provided basically on theories and approaches to understanding research. Thank you so much!! The distinction between the two approaches is clear and concise.
Most other websites tend to go into long discussions without really getting to the point. This was very helpful. It is a very fruitful post. I would like to ask if the objective of my research is to develop an extended process from the existing processes. And I am going to use qualitative and quantitative research methods, because my research phenomenon requires to study the individual meanings and perceptions and then uses the findings from the qualitative study and also the theoretical study as inputs for the quantitative study.
So, which approach to follow in this case? Dear Tamer, Your question is too hypothetical for me to offer a response. But in any event, you are the only one who can decide whether an inductive or deductive approach is appropriate for your research project. This is where methodology comes in — which is about determining what research methods will be most effective in answering your research questions and which are in sync with your approach e.
I guess its a combination of inductive and deductive. What do you think about the approach with quantitative analyses that start with data to generate theories? Typically data mining techniques fit into my example.
This is a question of methodology — research methods must be selected based on the discipline, research questions and approach to the study. For example, If you are seeking to ascertain how many people read the news on their smartphones then a quantitiative method is most appropriate.
On the other hand. Which would be more appropriate qualitative or quantitative? In your own study, secondary sources would appear under a Literature Review.
However, if you are doing a dissertation, say for an undergraduate degree where you are not undertaking primary research then inductive or deductive approaches are not applicable. I hope this clarifies. Your comments are really good and easy to understand.
Deductive and Inductive Arguments
Published on April 18, by Raimo Streefkerk. Revised on November 11, The main difference between inductive and deductive reasoning is that inductive reasoning aims at developing a theory while deductive reasoning aims at testing an existing theory. Inductive reasoning moves from specific observations to broad generalizations, and deductive reasoning the other way around. Table of contents Inductive research approach Deductive research approach Combining inductive and deductive research. When there is little to no existing literature on a topic, it is common to perform inductive research because there is no theory to test.
'Deduction' vs. 'Induction' vs. 'Abduction'
During the scientific process, deductive reasoning is used to reach a logical true conclusion. Another type of reasoning, inductive, is also used. Often, people confuse deductive reasoning with inductive reasoning, and vice versa.
Reasoning in artificial intelligence has two important forms, Inductive reasoning, and Deductive reasoning. Both reasoning forms have premises and conclusions, but both reasoning are contradictory to each other. Following is a list for comparison between inductive and deductive reasoning:.
Table of contents
Learn the difference between the two types of reasoning and how to use them when evaluating facts and arguments. As odd as it sounds, in science, law, and many other fields, there is no such thing as proof — there are only conclusions drawn from facts and observations. Scientists cannot prove a hypothesis, but they can collect evidence that points to its being true. The question of what makes something true is more relevant than ever in this era of alternative facts and fake news. This article explores truth — what it means and how we establish it.
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